Consoleprints

Music is passion

Music is energy

Music is joy

Music is creativity

Music is eternal

Music is love

Music is soul

Music is life

Music is one of the greatest creations of human kind in the course of history. It is creativity in a pure and undiluted form and format. Music plays a vital role in our daily life. It is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Music is a way to escape life, which gives us relief in pain and helps us to reduce the stress of the daily routine. It helps us to calm down, an even excites us in the moment of joy. Moreover, it enriches the mind and gives us self confidence.

Music surrounds our lives at different moments of lives, whether we hear it on the radio, on television, from our car and home stereos. Different kinds of music are appropriate for different occasions. We come across it in the mellifluous tunes of a classical concert or in the devotional strains of a bhajan, the wedding band, or the reaper in the fields breaking into song to express the joys of life. Even warbling in the bathroom gives us a happy start to the day. Music has a very powerful therapeutic effect on the human psyche. It has always been part of our association with specific emotions, and those emotions themselves have given rise to great music.

The origins of Indian music can be traced back to the chanting of the Sama Veda nearly 4,000 years ago. The primacy of the voice, and the association of musical sound with prayer, were thus established early in the history of Indian music. Today, music is available for us in different forms and the choice for music varies from person to person just as the reading choices vary from one another. There is folk music, classical music, devotional music, instrumental, jazz, rock music, pop music, hindi movie songs and many more.

In the modern world, Music has gained an honourable designation of ‘HEALING WITHOUT MEDICINE’. Doctors feel that music therapy has been helping them in treating many people with problems like dementia, dyslexia depression and trauma.” Many children with learning disability and poor co-ordination have been able to learn, and respond to set pieces of music. Many people with genetic disability have found a new light in the form of music.

Dance critic Ashish Khokar cites an experiment as proof: “Music is produced from sound, and sound affects our sense perception in many ways. Even fish in an aquarium were once made to listen to different kinds of music and it was found that their movements corresponded with the beat of the music. Mind you, fish do not hear, they only felt the vibrations of the sound through water. So you can imagine what a profound effect sound and music might have on the human mind.”

Anand Avinash, founder of the Neuro Linguistic Consciousness workshop who has researched music therapy says,”the mystics and saints from ancient to modern times have shown how music can kindle the higher centers of the mind and enhance quality of life.” Mantras, or chants used in the West, repeated monotonously, help the mind to achieve a sense of balance. A combination of the sounds in Sanskrit mantras produce certain positive vibrations and elevate the mind to a higher lever of consciousness.

We all know that meditation cleanses the system of its negative energies and vibrations. And music is a powerful aid to meditation. In many meditation workshops, music is used to make people more aware of their moods and feelings. People are made to lie down and empty their minds and then listen to the music which is systematically changed so that they can fit through different emotions and state of consciousness.

Many people also believe that any music you respond to positively will work for you, regardless of its content. Thus, even pop music might work wonders for you.

Music affects all of us in some way or the other. It also is the most common interest of many people. People who love music, listen to it while traveling, reading, meditation, walking, some even have soft music while working in their busy routine. It helps them to relax and escape from the stress of our day-to-day lives. It can transport us to another time or place and it is a great feeling of seeing or doing or experiencing something different. People have special music corner for themselves and some people give importance to listening in silence and some people love to read with light music and even some people love listening to music before sleeping. Many people love listening to music in bathroom because they feel it is one of the few rooms in the home where privacy is routinely respected. Some people also love to sing in the bathroom and are called ‘bathroom singers’. Music has now become a part of our life as it serves different purposes for each one of us.

  • It serves as an entertainment tool. For instance, in an occasion or event, music plays a vital role that makes the event to be lively for the people. Similarly, it creates cordial relationship among the people.
  • Moreover, it serves as a tool for corrective measure. Music tell the people on the habit that is uncultured so that such behavior can be for better. Furthermore, it is an agent that is used to educate people. Music can easily convey message to the friends and enemies.
  • It serves as tool for settling dispute between two or more people. It often helps to put an end to disagreements after listening to related meaningful songs. Music is played for the group to show harmony among them.
  • Music also serves as a source of income to human life. It is a profession of particular classes of people like lyricist, playback singers, music directors, musicians, musical instrument players, djs etc.
  • Lastly, music serves as a message or symbol that indicates the occurrence that is going on in a particular place or event. For instance, If bad occurrence happen in a particular place the type of music played their will show the audience or listens what happened in that event. The type of music played will justify to the listeners what actually going on there.

Every nation across the world has something to offer to tourists. Of late, the increasing influx of business tourists to India well corroborates the fact of India turning into a business hub. All the major cities like Bangalore, New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, etc. act as the nucleus not only for inter state business but also international business.

When we speak of Bangalore, a number of ‘highest number’ credited to the city besides being the IT hub of the country twinkles in the mind of the tourist. And many are not aware about the city’s importance in terms of the numerous records it has maintained. Bangalore has witnessed highest growth in 20 years. You will find here the highest number of software companies in India besides being home to the highest number of pubs in Asia. There are 21 engineering colleges, which is highest in the world in any given city.

The rise of students from across the country and the world in Bangalore is also due to the fact that Bangalore University has 57 engineering colleges affiliated to it, which is highest in the world. So, right from business to education, from leisure to sports, the city acts as a one-stop destination. This is the reason there are countless hotels in Bangalore. You will find these hotels in Bangalore in all categories – business hotels, budget hotels, 5 star hotels, resorts, lodging inns, and the like.

Most of the 5 star hotels in Bangalore are part of hotel chains that have branches all over the country. Those who are registered with such a hotel chain do gain a competitive advantage. They can avail such benefits as redeeming of points, rewards, discounts; frequent stays may even facilitate their free stays. If you are a frequent traveler to Bangalore for business, do get registered in one of the business hotels in Bangalore. Most of these business hotels fall in the categories of 5 star hotels; so the facilities and world class services you will avail will be unmatched and your complete stay will turn out cost-effective as well.

Over the past ten years a majority of the top ten songs on the Billboard charts has been consistent trendsetters. Songs that have saturated radio airwaves by the masses are placed in constant rotation to enthrall us. These songs appeal to a certain audience that often allow those in the music industry to capitalize on the opportunity to gain new fans of the most popular genres of music today. But some of these genres of today music have lost the luster for true music lovers, that they often resort to the classic CD’s from their youth just to hear music they deem as good music.

But what is considered “good music”? According to industry executives, “good music” is “any music that can capture the attention of an audience.” However; for the demographic of listeners in their mid twenties to mid thirties, “good music” is music that’s worth listening to many years after, and whose lyrics has meaning and depth.

So if the music industry has released nothing but “good music” over the past ten years, then why is it that the demographic of listeners in their mid twenties, thirties and older doesn’t find it worth listening to?

After further discussion with Atlanta’s LS Muzik Group, a company representative says, “most of the music that is released today has a certain appeal that reflects the trend set during that time. If at that time, snap music or crunk music is the sound that’s in, then that’s what the trend will follow. It is rare that you’d find “good music” [from the likes of] a Neyo, R. Kelly, Usher, Mary J Blige, Anthony Hamilton, or Musiq Soulchild to name a few. Not including good folk, rap, country, gospel, blues, jazz, or alternative rock music from some great artists who are worth listening to also. But out of the few named, there’s really not that many artists today that has potential for longevity. These artists are force fed to the consumer just to make record sales. We truly doubt half of them will be around to play sold out arenas in the next ten years.”

Hoping to bridge the gap between the two demographics of listeners in their mid twenties to mid thirties, the company looks to bring back good music that is worth listening to by adapting the Motown approach by signing good talent and releasing heartfelt songs with meaning.

Although the idea to bring back good music is what LS Muzik Group intends to do, there’s still that certain group of listeners the company may struggle to gain. Mainly because the music industry have already captured the attention of this group over the past ten years with music that has a sound of its own, a sound that has captivated them with what LS Muzik Group deems as over synthesized sounds. It is unclear however, as to how the company plans to win over that demographic, when all they know is what the music industry have force-fed them.

And because of this, the dividing line between the two demographics has left a void in the music industry, simply because true music lovers aren’t as fascinated with listening to over synthesized sounds that has little to no substance. This has crippled record sales over the past ten years.

In spite of the clever marketing initiatives by the music industry to capture true music lovers, the effort hasn’t been significant enough to impact their decisions to enjoy listening to the music released today thereby causing most of the music released today to barely go gold or platinum. This is all due in part not only to the Internet, but because true music lovers in their mid twenties, thirties, and older who enjoy good music, are not buying what is most popular today. But if what’s popular is Trey Songz or Chris Brown, then how is it that either of the two artists survives in such an industry where their level of success or failure is dictated by their marketing, and not their music.

“Record companies have gotten somewhat smart on how they market and release artists. Their idea to market and release Chris Brown or Trey Songz on the same Tuesday as they would Robin Thicke or K Jon isn’t the same. Simply because record sales for Chris Brown or Trey Songz may be slim for the first week of release, that marketing and releasing Trey Songz against K Jon on the same date would immobilize their sales goal of going gold or platinum, against a more likely artist that can, who has a more mature fan base of true music lovers who enjoy listening to good music,” says one industry executive.

This scenario is all too common in the industry today, whereas album release dates are rescheduled all due in part to industry executives being aware of the competition. Often times that competition is welcomed in what appears to be a rivalry to see who can out sell the other, as with the Kanye West and 50 Cent release in 2007. Rivalries such as this makes for clever marketing that will often propel record sales through the roof the first week of release, causing artists to go platinum. However at what cost to record companies? “Record companies can pay millions of dollars to market an artist all at the expense of gaining a few true music lovers. The gamble is to win the few they think will be loyal followers. While hoping the artists does their part to deliver good music to keep them [the fans] loyal.”

But with dismal record sales on the rise, artists are struggling to deliver good music to keep true music lovers devoted. Long gone are the days of the Motown Sound, Disco, P-Funk, and New Jack Swing era that we’ve all grown so accustom to that has found its way in music today through the practice of “sampling”; that most artists have lost all sense of creativity to produce almost anything remotely appealing to true music lovers. In order to win them over without the over synthesized sounds, they must sample or take portions of music from great artists like Teddy Pendergrass or The O’Jays just to get their attention.

So how can music get a fresh revitalization to capture the attention of true music lovers? Well according to LS Muzik Group, “bring back live musicians and artists who feel passionate about love and family values.” This could well be true, being that everything in heavy rotation on the radio is all about sex. “Where are the family values in the songs we hear today, there aren’t any. Most parents today don’t want their children listening to the radio, mainly because all they’re hearing is about sex.” From Trey Songz “Invented Sex”, to R. Kelly’s “Number One”, songs like these have saturated commercial radio and have left somewhat a bad taste in the mouth of true music listeners.

However artists like R. Kelly who has a solid fan base of loyal true music listeners, releasing songs like “Number One” is often well taken, being that an artist of his caliber is able to release just about anything and go platinum.

The musician in R. Kelly has allowed for him to survive in an industry that lacks creativity. Yet, he manages to stay in touch with his fan base while adjusting his talents to accommodate both younger and older audiences with songs like, “Number One”. But can the same be said of an artist [like a] Trey Songz? “Trey Songz is a talented artist; however, his fan base of course is entirely different from that of an R. Kelly or Robin Thicke not only because of the way he’s marketed, but also how he appeals to an audience that doesn’t understand good music. But considers what he sings to be. Keep in mind we are talking about a group that may not have even grew up listening to “good music” from the 70’s, 80’s or 90’s.”

Because of this lack of understanding, Trey Songz is able to sustain a fan base based entirely on his talents as a singer, songwriter and producer and thereby, creating music that his record label deems worthy of marketing and releasing to his fans. It is this group of listeners who are twenty-five and under, the music industry caters to without a second thought of catering to the older audiences. Why is this? It appears that a majority of the top ten songs on the Billboard charts is created by artists who themselves are twenty-five years of age and under, and who are basically creating music just for their age group. This has allowed for teenagers and young adults with a great deal of disposable income to spend their earnings from part-time jobs, birthday and holiday money on music, thereby pumping a small breath of life into the industry to keep it a live. So what’s going to happen once this age group gets much older and mature? Are they likely to even consider listening to Trey Songz or Chris Brown ten years from now?

The combination of good marketing combined with good talent can make artists such as Trey Songz a huge success because of the trend set in the industry today. Allowing record companies to capitalize off their talents now, and possibly tomorrow, depending on the terms of the artist-recording contract. Whereas in the days of Motown-“good music” was all it took to propel the success of an artist. It was imperative that Berry Gordy developed and released artists he knew could create “good music” that’s worth listening to many years after. This process of artist development became a critical element in the music industry up until 2000, when record labels took the time to develop an artist for longevity.

But if the trend has been set in motion to follow music that’s been hot for over the past ten years, then going against what the industry is doing to bring back “good music” with great lyrical content, is what LS Muzik Group looks to do and pave a way of their own in the industry.

With a well driven team of professionals and a roster of talented musicians and singers like Mr. Tao Jones and Jackie Watson who seek to change the direction of music released in the industry today, it is likely that “good music” can make a major comeback in commercial radio.

But what would be the downside to all of this? One major downside would be discovering more artists like Mr. Tao Jones and Jackie Watson who have the passion to write and sing “good music”. The other is how to reach the demographics twenty-five and under who are captivated with what they’ve heard on the radio for the past ten years. To this group of listeners, growing up in an era where music is either sampled or synthetically created is all they know to be good music. However not understanding where the music they’re listening to originally derived from.

Music from the 70’s, 80’s, and 90’s is now considered old school to this younger audiences, which today has all become obsolete, leaving room for a younger hip sound that’s all synthetically created like fast food. So what was once old, is now new again.

Take Monica’s “Everything”, a melodic rendition of Denise Williams, “Silly”. This is a classic example of an artist who feels passionate about love and family values, has great talents, a solid fan base, and understands that the industry needs “good music”. However with the odds against her to accommodate her fans, record label, and a younger audience who thinks her music is old school, it is difficult for Monica or any artist of her stature from 70’s, 80’s and 90’s to make a comeback.

“In order to survive in the music industry today, an artist who once were in high demand during those days, would have to readjust their talents to accommodate the trend today in the industry. This doesn’t necessarily mean change the style of music that made them successful for years, but do what it is they do best while incorporating a younger hip sound that will appeal to both audiences.”

However not all artists can readjust and appeal to a younger audience. Artists like Monica are learning that the industry has changed dramatically over the years with an all-new sound that has made it somewhat complicated to adjust to, making it difficult to comeback. But often times an old school artist can return like they’ve never left and go platinum. Take Charlie Wilson, former member of the famed G.A.P Band or George Clinton architect of the band Parliament-Funkadelic, these artists have set a perfect example on how to readjust their talent in rap music to accommodate the trend of the industry to reach the younger audiences. It is this adjustment that Charlie Wilson and George Clinton were able to comeback with rap artists like Snoop Dogg and Ice Cube.

Although this strategy may have worked for Charlie Wilson and George Clinton-it is by far a long shot that other artists of 70’s, 80’s and 90’s can achieve. Because of the generation gap within the music industry, it is clear that fans are divided between what’s considered “good music” and what’s not. Therefore making it difficult to bridge the gap. And if record executives continue to overlook this issue, artist they consider as today stars will suffer immensely with record sales in the coming years, leaving them with a short term musical career. Here today, gone tomorrow.

Computer plays an essential role people’s day to day life especially at work place, schools and even in home. Twenty first century has been the age of so many technological advancements aimed for making the lives of people better. Computer helps them become more efficient in their work.

Computer technology in banking:

Technology has made our living easy and comfortable, for instance our banking needs. Previously people need to maintain the important data of their customers manually. But right now, in just one click, they would be able to find all the customers’ data instantly. The customers are able to know about the transactions of their account by logging in to the bank website. Moreover, it is possible to apply for loans through online.

Improvements of computer technology:

Computer technology has improved our life style far better than before. Due to the emergence of internet and technology, the world has shrunk to a global village. Even though the advancement in internet creates new challenges like computer problems and virus threats, the computer technology like antivirus software made easy to overcome these problems.

Computer in food industry:

The automation and computerization in food processing units is facing lots of challenges if they are used nearby water catastrophic effects on any computer system. Most food processing units prefer waterproof computers to protect their computer systems from drenching in the production area.

Computer in medical field:

Hospital is an important organization and computers are used for the management of a hospital. The accounting, payroll and stock system of the hospital have been computerized in recent days. We can maintain the record of different medicines, their distribution and use in different wards etc. using computer. Even the disease can be diagnosed by entering the symptoms of a patient. Moreover, various computerized devices are used in laboratories for different tests of blood etc.

Computer in agriculture:

Nowadays agricultural industry is also making use of the computers. The analysis that was taken some few years before shows that 44% of the farmers in Ohio are using computers for various purposes. In 1991, only 32% of the farmers were making use of it. This shows that there is considerable increase in the farmers who are using computers. As internet becomes the means of communication, most farmers use this technological advancement for transaction processing or for retrieving information. The analysis shows that out of the total farmers who were surveyed, 80% of them are making use of the internet.

Computer in education:

Due to the globalization of education, so many challenges are posed by the new trends. In order to face all these challenges, information technology in the education sector is very important. It is essential that the students become familiar with the concept and use of information technology in order to equip them for future job market. Similarly, the faculty can achieve better quality in teaching methodology. The computer technology has developed in many fields. Its drastic development has created an immense impact in almost all the fields and thus leading to a new era.

 

Since the beginning of time, music has been used as an expression of cultural identity. Ancient tribal societies used music as a foundation for gatherings and to express their history, ethnicity, and cultural beliefs. Music has changed throughout the ages, but the use of music as an essential part of cultural and individual expression has changed very little.

Music’s integral connection to identity is often difficult to recognize, especially in today’s society where music may not be viewed as being as message-oriented as it once was. There were times when entire generations or cultures of individuals each knew the same songs. During World War II, entire nations of people sang songs that expressed their national identity with their cause and their connection to their fighting forces. Again, with the protest songs of the 1960’s and 1970’s, the people of the nation explored their feelings about war, youth, and racial unrest. And, as music as a form of expression has grown, different individuals within the same society have come to identify with varying forms of music as their own individual expression of self.

Although music may not be as blatantly descriptive as the songs of decades past, music speaks to the individual in the same way that the individual speaks through music. A nation of parents sat perplexed as their children became entranced by the sounds of rock and roll, and now there are as many types of music to identify with as there are generational cliques to adapt the musical message. Parents are still perplexed by youth who dress like Britney Spears and Eminem and who use language expressed in song. The addition of music videos has also added a note to self-expression through music that wasn’t present until the last few years. Unlike past generations, today’s youth can see how the music is being expressed and can identify visually with their chosen genre. Television and the internet have also allowed international peoples to share their cultures through music.

Whether music is viewed as being an influence on youth or as being influenced by youth, is still secondary to the fact that it has always been present as a socializing factor. Whether that socialization takes place as a part of a group membership or as a way to express individuality, there is no way to ignore the fact that the influence and expression of music expands as the world community shares more of its musical styles. People may find that music speaks to them in a certain way, moves them in a certain way, or that they identify with its message. People may also find that they can use music to express themselves as individuals as well as to conform to a group. Doubtless, music and its connection to individual and group identity will take on new forms as people continue to be exposed to varying forms of music and culture.

Source by Rebecca Stigall

Market segmentation is widely defined as being a complex process consisting in two main phases:

– identification of broad, large markets

– segmentation of these markets in order to select the most appropriate target markets and develop Marketing mixes accordingly.

Everyone within the Marketing world knows and speaks of segmentation yet not many truly understand its underlying mechanics, thus failure is just around the corner. What causes this? It has been documented that most marketers fail the segmentation exam and start with a narrow mind and a bunch of misconceptions such as “all teenagers are rebels”, “all elderly women buy the same cosmetics brands” and so on. There are many dimensions to be considered, and uncovering them is certainly an exercise of creativity.

The most widely employed model of market segmentation comprises 7 steps, each of them designed to encourage the marketer to come with a creative approach.

STEP 1: Identify and name the broad market

You have to have figured out by this moment what broad market your business aims at. If your company is already on a market, this can be a starting point; more options are available for a new business but resources would normally be a little limited.

The biggest challenge is to find the right balance for your business: use your experience, knowledge and common sense to estimate if the market you have just identified earlier is not too narrow or too broad for you.

STEP 2: Identify and make an inventory of potential customers’ needs

This step pushes the creativity challenge even farther, since it can be compared to a brainstorming session.

What you have to figure out is what needs the consumers from the broad market identified earlier might have. The more possible needs you can come up with, the better.

Got yourself stuck in this stage of segmentation? Try to put yourself into the shoes of your potential customers: why would they buy your product, what could possibly trigger a buying decision? Answering these questions can help you list most needs of potential customers on a given product market.

STEP 3: Formulate narrower markets

McCarthy and Perreault suggest forming sub-markets around what you would call your “typical customer”, then aggregate similar people into this segment, on the condition to be able to satisfy their needs using the same Marketing mix.

Start building a column with dimensions of the major need you try to cover: this will make it easier for you to decide if a given person should be included in the first segment or you should form a new segment. Also create a list of people-related features, demographics included, for each narrow market you form – a further step will ask you to name them.

There is no exact formula on how to form narrow markets: use your best judgement and experience. Do not avoid asking opinions even from non-Marketing professionals, as different people can have different opinions and you can usually count on at least those items most people agree on.

STEP 4: Identify the determining dimensions

Carefully review the list resulted form the previous step. You should have by now a list of need dimensions for each market segment: try to identify those that carry a determining power.

Reviewing the needs and attitudes of those you included within each market segment can help you figure out the determining dimensions.

STEP 5: Name possible segment markets

You have identified the determining dimensions of your market segments, now review them one by one and give them an appropriate name.

A good way of naming these markets is to rely on the most important determining dimension.

STEP 6: Evaluate the behavior of market segments

Once you are done naming each market segment, allow time to consider what other aspects you know about them. It is important for a marketer to understand market behavior and what triggers it. You might notice that, while most segments have similar needs, they’re still different needs: understanding the difference and acting upon it is the key to achieve success using competitive offerings.

STEP 7: Estimate the size of each market segment

Each segment identified, named and studied during the previous stages should finally be given an estimate size, even if, for lack of data, it is only a rough estimate.

Estimates of market segments will come in handy later, by offering a support for sales forecasts and help plan the Marketing mix: the more data we can gather at this moment, the easier further planning and strategy will be.

These were the steps to segment a market, briefly presented. If performed correctly and thoroughly, you should now be able to have a glimpse of how to build Marketing mixes for each market segment.

This 7 steps approach to market segmentation is very simple and practical and works for most marketers. However, if you are curious about other methods and want to experiment, you should take a look at computer-aided techniques, such as clustering and positioning.

What is advertising?

It is hard to find a satisfactory definition of advertising.

A picturesque way of putting it is to call it business imagination, an imagination that sees in a product possibilities which can be realized only by appealing to the public in new ways to create a desire where none existed before. It is a very broad word, an omnibus word conveying different ideas to different people.

No advertising definition is here possible except as this entire article may be accepted as a definition. So rapidly has advertising advanced through its various changes that even the latest dictionaries and encyclopedias are out of date in their attempts to define it. The advertising of yesterday is not the advertising of today. Men not so very old have witnessed its entire development from an untrustworthy instrument of quacks to its place as an engine in the conduct and expansion of business.

Advertising in the dictionary sense has a history as old as that of the human race. Just as soon as there were enough people in the world, some sort of formal announcement had to be made. The early history of such announcements – from proclamations to the beginning of pictorial and lettered inscriptions, from these primitive posters to the discovery of printing, and from the advent of printing to the beginning of real advertising – is of interest only to the archaeologist. It is of no value to the business entrepreneur. It would be of no assistance to understanding modern advertising than ancient Phoenicians coins would be to comprehending the principles of a modern bank.

Every attempt to secure the sale of a product or service is advertising. The wares of the primitive merchant displayed invitingly in front of his booth is advertising. A want ad, to secure a job or an employee, is advertising. An inscription on a wall, the barker in front of a side show, the promises of an internet marketer, the announcement of a new online technology, membership in an affiliate program, wearing a peculiar shirt or distinctive sticker in your car – all these are forms of advertising in that they seek to attract attention to a product or a service that is for sale. For a product or a service of general use, rich and poor, high and low, men, women and even children, must be appealed to.

At least one principle we know of, stays constant, not eroding with the passing of time or the use and or abuse of men, not concerned with the weather outside, nor considering your personal health status, or taking into account your surrounding circumstances, and that is that you have to keep doing it, it has to be fed, no way around it, it keeps asking for every ounce of your commitment if you expect any kind of visible returns.

Whatever the appropriate definition of advertisement is, one thing is to conclude, it is because it has been. And every succeeding year since the beginning of the human entrepreneurship it has left its precious deposit of new ideas, better methods, larger and swifter efficiency, and the promise of an even greater growth.

 

Want to know some interesting facts about culinary arts? Well, as most people know, the culinary arts revolve around culinary arts and food, and they include everything from restaurant management and hospitality management to food science and food safety. Someone who works in any of these areas is called a “culinarian,” and that includes everyone from food service workers to creators of the fantastic pastry arts.

Historical Facts

The history of the culinary arts is a rather long one. Some historical facts about culinary include these interesting facts about culinary arts. In the U.S., the first culinary school opened in the 1800s, but culinary arts were well under way in Europe from Medieval times onward. There were many cookbooks published or handwritten from Medieval times to more modern history, and Le Cordon Blue Schools, one of the most renowned in the world, opened in Paris in 1895, after a long history of collecting recipes and publishing a food recipe magazine. Cookbooks and cooking schools have continued to be popular into modern times, and there is a surge of interest in the culinary arts right now.

Cooking Schools

One of the best places to learn interesting facts about culinary arts include some of the nation’s best cooking schools. They can prepare a student for a career in food and beverage, as everything from a chef to a practitioner of pastry arts, and they offer many different opportunities for learning, as well. They offer classes to the home cook to make them more accomplished, and offer classes online and in the evenings, so students can still hold down a job while they learn a new career. Some of the most well-known and respected cooking schools include Le Cordon Blue Schools, the Culinary Institute of America, (CIA), and Johnson & Wales University.

A Career in Culinary Arts

If you want to learn more interesting facts about culinary arts, try watching the Food Network, or attending a class at your local cooking school or community college. They offer instruction at every level, and you can begin to see if a career in culinary arts is really what you’re looking for. Remember, a career in this area can be much more than a career in food and beverage. Today, America’s top chefs host their own cooking shows, write cookbooks, and even travel the world in search of culinary adventures. They create reality TV shows, endorse their own lines of cookware, and far beyond, so today, a career in culinary can mean more than working with and loving food, it can mean fame and fortune, too.

A Recipe for Success

What do you need for a career in the kitchen? A great love of food helps, and of course, you should like to cook! A good palate for tastes and textures is important to the budding chef, and if you want a career in pastry, you should love to bake and understand the science of cooking. A good cooking school specializing in the culinary arts can help you discover just what type of cooking and cuisine suits you best, so choose your school wisely. A career in the culinary arena can lead to great success, and for many chefs, that culminates in opening their own signature restaurants. Are you the next Wolfgang Puck or Mario Batali? You’ll never know unless you check out the culinary arts as a step on your career ladder.

 

Financial accounting’s focus is on the financial reports distributed to people outside of the company. The major component of financial reporting is the financial statements: income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, and the statement of stockholders’ equity. The income statement indicates a company’s profitability during a specified time period such as one year, three months or one month.

Under accrual accounting the income statement reports the amount of revenues earned and the expenses that were incurred to earn the revenues. Expenses also include costs that expired during the period of the income statement. If a corporation’s stock is publicly traded, the income statement will also report the earnings per share of common stock. The balance sheet reports a corporation’s assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity as of a specific instant, such as midnight of December 31. Most balance sheets will group all of the current assets and all of the current liabilities. This allows readers to easily see the corporation’s working capital and current ratio. The statement of cash flows organizes the explanations of the change in cash and cash equivalents into three sections: operating activities, investment activities, and financing activities. The statement of stockholders equity provides a summary of the changes occurring to stockholders’ equity during the accounting period. The changes include net income, dividends declared, purchase of treasury stock, and other comprehensive income.

In order for the readers of these financial statements to make comparisons with other companies, it is necessary that the financial statements follow some common rules. The rules are referred to as generally accepted accounting principles or GAAP (pronounced gap) and consist of several components. One component of GAAP is the basic or fundamental accounting principles and concepts such as cost, matching, going concern, economic entity, materiality, conservatism, consistency, reliability, and others.

Another part of GAAP includes the detailed rules established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or FASB (pronounced fas Bee). These pronouncements are entitled statements of financial accounting standards. FASB interpretations are also part of GAAP. The accounting rules established by the predecessors of the FASB remain as GAAP unless they have been superceded by the FASB.

Lastly, GAAP includes industry practices. For example, the balance sheet of a public utility will list the plant assets ahead of its current assets. Unique reporting practices often occur in industries that are regulated by government agencies.

The financial accounting and financial reporting of publicly traded corporations also include the annual report to the Securities and Exchange Commission (Form 10-K), the annual report to stockholders, and various press releases on financial matters.
How Much Does The Iphone 7 Cost How Much Does Iphone 6 Cost How Much Money Is A Iphone 6 How Much Is The Iphone 7 Iphone 6 S Plus Price How Much To Fix Iphone 5C Screen How Much Is It To Fix An Iphone 5S Screen Iphone 6C Price Iphone 5 Charger Port Repair How Much Do Iphone 6 Cost What Does An Iphone 4 Look Like Iphone 6 Plus Screen Replacement Cost Iphone 5S Screen Replacement Cost What Does A Iphone 5S Look Like How Much Does Iphone 6S Cost How Much Are Iphone 6 How Much Is A Used Iphone 5S How Much Is An Iphone 5S Worth Iphone 5S Verizon No Contract Does Boost Mobile Sell Iphones Replace Glass On Iphone 6 Iphones At Metropcs Sprint Iphones For Sale How Much Are Iphone 6S Best Deal On Iphone 6 How Much Do Iphone 5C Cost Iphone 6 Upgrade Cost Iphone 6 How Much Does It Cost Iphone 5C Screen Replacement Cost Who Buys Iphones Printing Pictures From Iphone T Mobile Iphones For Sale Refurbished Iphone 5S Verizon How Much Does A Iphone 5C Cost How Much Do A Iphone 6 Cost What Is The Newest Iphone How Much Does A Iphone 6 Cost How Much Is Iphone 5S How Much Does The Iphone 6 Cost Iphone 5S Battery Replacement Cost How Much Is A Iphone 6S How Much Is An Iphone 5C How Much Are Iphone 5C Iphone 5S Retail Price Replace Iphone 5C Screen Iphones For Sale No Contract Iphone 5 Battery Replacement Cost How Much Is An Iphone 6S How Much Is A Iphone 5S Worth How Much Does A Iphone 5S Cost Iphone 5S Price In Usa Cheap Iphones No Contract Iphone 5S Without Contract Cheap Iphones Without Contract How Much Do Iphones Cost At Walmart T Mobile Plans For Iphone 6 How Much Is A Iphone 5 Iphone 5S At&T No Contract How Much Is The Iphone 6 Iphone 5S For Sale Cheap No Contract Used Iphones For Sale Cheap How Much Are Iphone 5S Cheap Iphone 5S No Contract Sprint Iphone 6 Plan Polaroid Attachment For Iphone How Much Is A Iphone 6 Iphone 5S Price Without Contract Iphone 5S For Sale No Contract How Much Is An Iphone 5 Iphone 6 Plus Prepaid Refurbished Iphone 6 Tmobile Cheap Iphones For Sale Without Contract Does Metropcs Have Iphones Iphone 5C Price Without Contract Iphone Tmobile Deal Science Diet Urinary Cat Food Science Diet Perfect Weight Cat Hill’s Science Diet Metabolic Shreds Diet Pill Diet Pills That Work Fast Without Exercise Hills Prescription Diet R D Jennifer Hudson Diet Pills Raw Meat Diet For Dogs Diet Pills That Work Fast For Women Science Diet Dog Food Reviews Garcinia Xt Diet Diet Tea Brands Friskies Special Diet Jj Smith Diet Plan Hill’s Science Diet Dog Food Coupons Top Rated Diet Pills 1200 Calorie A Day Diet Meal Plan Science Diet Dog Food Coupons Best Diet Pills For Men Best Otc Diet Pill Omni Drops Diet Auto Glass Repair Near Me Replacing Sliding Glass Door With French Doors Glass Garage Doors For Sale Replace Sliding Glass Door With Single Door Glasses Com Promo Code Body Guard Safety Glasses Zalto Wine Glasses Glasses For Petite Faces Wood Gun Cabinet With Etched Glass Stemless Wine Glasses Bulk Replacement Door Glass Insert Replace Glass On Iphone 6 Oprah Winfrey Glasses Wrought Iron End Tables With Glass Tops Ulta Face Moisturizer Best Moisturizer For Crepey Skin Best Face Moisturizer For Sensitive Skin Shea Moisture Anti Aging Moisturizer miracle speed Non Comedogenic Moisturizers Eltamd Am Therapy Facial Moisturizer Best Drugstore Face Moisturizer Best Moisturizer For Rosacea Best Face Moisturizer For Men Bare Minerals Tinted Moisturizer Clinique Gel Moisturizer Aveeno Face Moisturizer Moisture Barrier Home Depot Good Face Moisturizer Face Moisturizer For Oily Skin In Shower Moisturizer Non Comedogenic Moisturizer Best Moisturizer With Spf Best Moisturizer For Sensitive Skin Révive Moisturizing Renewal Eye Cream Best Men’s Face Moisturizer Best Oil Free Moisturizer Best Face Moisturizer For Dry Skin Oribe Moisturizing Cream Men’s Deodorant For Sensitive Skin What’s Good For Dry Skin Brilliance New York Skin Care Reviews How To Remove Dark Spots On Skin Organic Skin Care Lines Best Liquid Foundation For Oily Skin Best Deodorant For Sensitive Skin Best Soap For Dry Skin Best Soap For Sensitive Skin Professional Skin Care Lines Best Powder Foundation For Oily Skin Drugstore Foundation For Dry Skin Best Concealer For Oily Skin Best Body Wash For Dry Skin Best Moisturizer For Crepey Skin Best Face Moisturizer For Sensitive Skin Best Face Wash For Sensitive Skin Best Facial Cleanser For Oily Skin Full Coverage Foundation For Dry Skin Best Makeup For Aging Skin Best Face Wash For Acne Prone Skin Face Primer For Oily Skin Best Razor For Sensitive Skin Christie Brinkley Skin Care Reviews Bronzer For Pale Skin Best Laundry Detergent For Sensitive Skin Best Sunscreen For Sensitive Skin Murad Skin Care Reviews How To Tighten Breast Skin Best Bb Cream For Dry Skin Christie Brinkley Skin Care Line Brilliance New York Skin Care Best Eye Primer For Mature Skin Best Foundation For Aging Skin Matte Lipstick For Brown Skin High End Foundation For Dry Skin Best Women’s Razor For Sensitive Skin Hair Skin And Nails Vitamins Gummies Lipstick That Changes Color With Skin Tone Best Face Moisturizer For Oily Skin Vitamins For Dry Skin Removing Dead Skin From Feet What’s Good For Itchy Skin Best Sunscreen For Acne Prone Skin Best Bronzer For Fair Skin Hymed Skin Care Hair Nail And Skin Gummy Vitamins Best Foundation For Oily Acne Prone Skin Saatva Mattress Bad Reviews Saavta Mattress Where To Buy Saatva Mattress Online Mattress Companies Mattress Sale Lexington Ky Best Tempurpedic Mattress For Side Sleepers Denver Mattress Sale Best Mattress For Heavy People Best Mattress For Athletes Vegan Mattress Tempur-Pedic Mattress Sale Reverie Mattress Reviews Lumina Mattress Extra Firm Mattress Back Pain Mattress For Heavy Person Tempurpedic Mattress Protector Queen Mattress Discounters Sale Best Mattresses For Side Sleepers Softest Mattress Rooms To Go Mattress Sale Best Mattress For Snoring Mattress That Comes In A Box Wolf Mattress Reviews King Size Tempurpedic Mattress Mattress Sale Colorado Springs Mattress Sales Near Me Best Mattress For Lower Back Pain Rooms To Go Twin Mattress Sleepy’s King Size Mattress Mattress Discounters Near Me Aireloom Mattress Review Mattress Discounters Reno Places That Sell Mattresses Near Me The Dump Mattress Sale Best Mattresses For Back Pain Best Mattress For The Money Alaskan King Mattress Mattress For Sale Near Me Costco Com Mattresses Tempurpedic Mattress Cover Queen Macy’s Mattress Clearance Macy’s Mattress Sale Signature Sleep Mattress Review Inexpensive Mattresses Places To Buy Mattresses Near Me Cuddle Mattress Review Firm Mattress Topper For Back Pain Costco Mattress Queen King Size Bed With Mattress Included Mattress Firm Headboards Tempur Pedic 3 Inch Mattress Topper credit card shock Discount Mattress Near Me Safe Slumber Mattress King Koil Mattress Reviews Costco Queen Mattress Bobs Furniture Mattress Twin Mattress At Big Lots Big Lots Beds And Mattresses Mattress Firm Bed Frame Christeli Mattress Sam’s Club Mattress Sale Cheap Mattresses Okc Cheap Queen Mattress Under 100 Rooms To Go Mattresses Costco Twin Mattress Kingsdown Mattress Review Cooling Gel Memory Foam Mattress Pad Twin Bed With Mattress Included Serta 3 Inch Gel Memory Foam Mattress Topper Cheap Mattresses Near Me Cheap Twin Beds With Mattress Included Pillow Top Mattress Pads Bed Bath And Beyond Mattress Protector Walmart Mattress In A Box Macys Memory Foam Mattress Topper Mattress Topper To Make Bed Firmer Moonlight Slumber Little Dreamer Crib Mattress Signature Sleep 8 Inch Memory Foam Mattress Goodwill Mattress Mattress Protector Bed Bath And Beyond How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs In A Mattress Serta Rest Mattress Topper Rv Mattress Sizes Mattress Storage Bag Walmart Best Mattress For Sex Does Walmart Sell Mattresses Best Mattress Topper For Hip Pain Big Lots Twin Mattress Kmart Crib Mattress Cheap Bunk Beds With Mattress Kohls Mattress Protector Sound Asleep Air Mattress Bed Bath And Beyond Mattress Topper How To Make A Mattress Softer Air Mattress With Frame Dreamfinity Mattress Topper Mattress Cover For Moving Mattress Wedge Walmart Breathable Crib Mattress Pad How To Make Mattress Softer Therapedic Mattress Topper Blow Up Mattresses Kmart Mattress Topper Target Futon Mattress Crib Mattress Dimensions Air Mattress At Kmart Tri Fold Mattress Pad Costco Air Mattress Mattress Covers Walmart Queen Size Blow Up Mattress Twin Air Mattress With Built In Pump winter studies Macys Mattress Topper Best Mattress For Graco Pack N Play King Size Mattress Cover Walmart Walmart Plastic Mattress Cover Jcpenney Air Mattress Bed Bug Mattress Cover Home Depot Mattress For Pack N Play Queen Mattress Cover Walmart Home Design Mattress Pads Graco Pack And Play Mattress Air Mattresses At Walmart Best Air Mattress For Camping Walmart Bunk Beds With Mattress Best Blow Up Mattress Saatva Mattress Review Online Mattress Company Tempur Pedic Mattress Reviews Chemical Free Mattress Black Friday Mattress Sale Seattle Natural Mattress Tempurpedic Mattress Reviews Sleep Number Mattress Reviews Novaform Mattress Reviews Mattress Stores Near Me Best Mattress Las Vegas Where To Buy A Mattress Mattress Discounter Best Type Of Mattress Bob’s Mattress Icomfort Mattress Reviews Memorial Day Mattress Sale Mattress For Obese Lucid Mattress Review Kmart Mattress Sale Best Mattress For A Bad Back Queen Size Tempurpedic Mattress Discount Mattress Sets Cheap Mattress Stores Memorial Day Sale Mattress Twin Size Tempurpedic Mattress Sleepy’s Mattress Sale Stearns And Foster Hybrid Mattress Best Place To Buy A Mattress Aireloom Mattress Reviews Best Place To Buy Mattress King Koil Mattress Review Therapedic Mattress Reviews Twin Mattress Set Sale Mattress Sale Near Me Mattresses Near Me Best Mattress For Kids Mattresses At Costco Kingsdown Mattress Reviews Cheap Queen Mattress Sets Restonic Mattress Reviews Mattress On Craigslist Flippable Mattress Queen Mattress And Boxspring Set Olympic Queen Mattress Vera Wang Mattress Mattress Outlet Near Me Sears Mattress Sale Mattress One Houston Restonic Mattress Review Bed Bug Mattress Protectors Full Size Mattress And Boxspring Set Twin Mattress Costco Serta Gel Memory Foam Mattress Topper Westin Mattress Mattress Pad For Back Pain Camper Mattress Topper Twin Mattress For Bunk Bed Westin Heavenly Mattress Sealy Soybean Foam Core Crib Mattress Breathable Crib Mattress Reviews 48 X 72 Mattress Tempurpedic Mattress Pad Best Mattress Topper For Back Pain Extra Firm Mattress Topper Tempurpedic Mattress Topper Mattress Cover For Bed Bugs Tempurpedic Mattress Topper Queen Air Mattress Bed Bath And Beyond Costco Mattress Topper Cheap Toddler Beds With Mattress Babies R Us Crib Mattress Sam’s Club Twin Mattress Big Lots Mattresses Futon Beds With Mattress Included Mattress Toppers Reviews Mattress Stain Remover Heavenly Bed Mattress Bed Bath And Beyond Air Mattress Futon Bunk Bed With Mattress Included Target Mattress Pad Oval Bassinet Mattress Sealy Soybean Foam-Core Crib Mattress Mattress Topper Target Coleman Twin Air Mattress Mattress Pad Target Mattress Cover Walmart Walmart Mattress Cover Walmart Full Size Mattress Bed Bug Mattress Cover Walmart Air Mattress Pump Battery Operated Outdoor Twin Mattress Cover Dream On Me Playard Mattress Kohls Mattress Topper Graco Pack N Play Mattress Pack And Play Mattress Intex Air Mattress Walmart Pack N Play Mattress Pad Best Camping Air Mattress Air Mattress Repair Kit Walmart Blow Up Mattress Toddler Air Mattress Lullaby Earth Crib Mattress Reviews Iphone Prepaid Plans Metro Pcs Iphone Deals Prepaid Iphone Plans Fix My Iphone Screen Cheap Iphone 6 Screen Repair Iphone 6 32Gb Price Iphone 6 Phone Plans Iphone 6 Screen Repair Cost Replacing Iphone 5S Screen Iphone 6 S Price Show Me Iphone 6 Iphone 5S For Sale Verizon Iphone 5S Tmobile For Sale Iphone 6 Screen Replacement Cost T Mobile Iphone Deals Replace Iphone 4 Screen Fix Iphone 5C Screen How Much To Fix Iphone 5 Screen Flir Thermal Camera Iphone Iphone 6S Pricing Verizon Iphone 5S For Sale Cheap Iphones 5S How Much Does An Iphone 6 Cost Buy Broken Iphones Printing Photos From Iphone How Much Does Iphone 5S Cost Iphone 6 Without Contract Iphone 5 Screen Replacement Cost Best Smartwatch For Iphone How Much Is The Iphone 6S Win A Free Iphone 6 Iphones For Sale Cheap Replace Iphone 5S Screen Iphone 6S Release Date Price Cost Of Iphone 6S Cheapest Iphone Plan Iphone 6 Price Without Contract How Much Is A Iphone 5S Iphone 6 Plus Price Drop How Much Is An Iphone 5S Cheapest Iphone 6 Plus Tech 21 Iphone 5S Iphone Door Lock What Is The Latest Iphone Iphones 5S For Sale Print Photos From Iphone How Much Is The Iphone 5C Verizon Prepaid Iphone 5 Cheap Iphones For Sale Used Iphone 6 Verizon Iphone Storage Expansion How Much Is The Iphone 5S Cheap Iphones Unlocked How Much For Iphone 6 Verizon Iphones For Sale Verizon Plans For Iphone Craigslist Iphones Price Of Iphone 5C Iphone 6S Price In Usa Smartwatches For Iphone Iphone 5S Cheap Unlocked Iphone 5S Unlocked Cheap Price Of Iphone 6 Plus Target Iphone 5S Iphone 6 At Tmobile How Much Is Iphone 5 Target Iphones Cheap Iphone 5S Unlocked Verizon Iphone Plans Iphone 5S Cheapest Price Smart Watch Compatible With Iphone Iphone Deals At&T Drugstore Foundation For Oily Skin Skin Tightening Procedures Matte Foundation For Oily Skin Good Foundation For Oily Skin Powder Foundation For Oily Skin Face Moisturizer For Oily Skin Laundry Detergent For Sensitive Skin Skin Medica Products Skin Tightening Lotion Full Coverage Foundation For Oily Skin Best Foundation For Mature Skin Best Skin Care Regimen Face Masks For Oily Skin Best Full Coverage Foundation For Oily Skin Lotion For Itchy Skin Best Foundation For Sensitive Skin Eminence Skin Care Reviews Best Moisturizer For Aging Skin Best Foundation For Older Skin Best Makeup For Acne Prone Skin Best Skin Care Products For Women Men’s Skin Care Sets Concealer For Dark Skin Best Full Coverage Foundation For Dry Skin Best Skin Care Products For Men Best Foundation For Acne Prone Skin Best Body Lotion For Dry Skin Best Face Wash For Dry Skin Tatcha Skin Care Best Cc Cream For Oily Skin Befine Skin Care Dog Shampoo For Dry Skin La Creme Skin Care Bb Cream For Dark Skin Murad Pure Skin Clarifying Dietary Supplement Best Blush For Fair Skin Best Facial Moisturizer For Dry Skin Best Foundations For Dry Skin Best Foundation For Combination Skin Best Lotion For Extremely Dry Skin Vitamins For Clear Skin Best Skin Tightening Cream Mychelle Skin Care Nouveau Skin Care Acure Skin Care Philosophy Skin Care Reviews Best Korean Skin Care Products Best Bb Cream For Oily Skin Best Face Moisturizer For Dry Skin Albion Skin Care newspaperconferencest.com animetipsst.com coppervitaminst.com collegemythsst.com blogselectionsst.com orderradiost.com rankleapst.com residentialalertst.com researchnamest.com cheesebreathst.com sociallistingst.com brideemporiumst.com baldloserst.com handbagdealerst.com toddlertoothpastest.com accountseekst.com doctorseriesst.com alcoholicinfost.com ukbashst.com collegebasketballanalystst.com roofingsquadst.com newslanguagest.com impulseflyst.com voipgurusst.com anxietymeterst.com feedfunst.com aidsratest.com cashmereexporterst.com vdistrictst.com stuffedcheesest.com cubanexpeditionsst.com floorratesst.com simpleverifyst.com localconsignmentshopsst.com conferencecrasherst.com femalelikest.com automobilenutst.com doughnutnewsst.com affordablelumberst.com barcollectiblesst.com fightlistingsst.com dishthaist.com egocheckerst.com largechipsst.com donorrecruiterst.com sodamixerst.com greenplaguest.com refrigeratoradvisorst.com reportquotest.com armexpertsst.com basketballgreatst.com newstutorialst.com teleconferencetipsst.com jagspecialistst.com totalactorst.com boogiestorest.com linkreadyst.com laundrywirelessst.com wirelessphonestoragest.com localmufflersst.com paradisedomainsst.com curtainsheetsst.com inkdistributorst.com shortleasesst.com skipblogst.com

In any Listing Agreement there is a point in time when the agency relationship ends.

A Listing Agreement, as it is widely known, is none other than a contract between the rightful titleholder of an interest in land (the ‘Principal’) and a duly licensed real estate firm (the ‘Agent’), whereby the firm stipulates and agrees to find a Buyer within a specified timeframe who is ready, willing and able to purchase the interest in land that is the subject matter of the contract while acting within the realm of the authority that the Principal confers onto the Agent, and wherein furthermore the titleholder stipulates and agrees to pay a commission should the licensee ever be successful in finding such Buyer.

As in all contracts, there is implied in a Listing Agreement an element which is commonly know at law as an ‘implied covenant of good faith and fair dealings’. This covenant is a general assumption of the law that the parties to the contract – in this case the titleholder and the licensed real estate firm – will deal fairly with each other and that they will not cause each other to suffer damages by either breaking their words or otherwise breach their respective and mutual contractual obligations, express and implied. A breach of this implied covenant gives rise to liability both in contract law and, depending on the circumstances, in tort as well.

Due to the particular nature of a Listing Agreement, the Courts have long since ruled that during the term of the agency relationship there is implied in the contract a second element that arises out of the many duties and responsibilities of the Agent towards the Principal: a duty of confidentiality, which obligates an Agent acting exclusively for a Seller or for a Buyer, or a Dual Agent acting for both parties under the provisions of a Limited Dual Agency Agreement, to keep confidential certain information provided by the Principal. Like for the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealings, a breach of this duty of confidentiality gives rise to liability both in contract law and, depending on the circumstances, in tort as well.

Pursuant to a recent decision of the Real Estate Council of British Columbia (http://www.recbc.ca/) , the regulatory body empowered with the mandate to protect the interest of the public in matters involving Real Estate, a question now arises as to whether or not the duty of confidentiality extends beyond the expiration or otherwise termination of the Listing Agreement.

In a recent case the Real Estate Council reprimanded two licensees and a real estate firm for breaching a continuing duty of confidentiality, which the Real Estate Council found was owing to the Seller of a property. In this case the subject property was listed for sale for over two years. During the term of the Listing Agreement the price of the property was reduced on two occasions. This notwithstanding, the property ultimately did not sell and the listing expired.

Following the expiration of the listing the Seller entered into three separate ‘fee agreements’ with the real estate firm. On all three occasions the Seller declined agency representation, and the firm was identified as ‘Buyer’s Agent’ in these fee agreements. A party commenced a lawsuit as against the Seller, which was related to the subject property.

The lawyer acting for the Plaintiff approached the real estate firm and requested that they provide Affidavits containing information about the listing of the property. This lawyer made it very clear that if the firm did not provide the Affidavits voluntarily, he would either subpoena the firm and the licensees as witnesses to give evidence before the Judge, or he would obtain a Court Order pursuant to the Rules Of Court compelling the firm to give such evidence. The real estate firm, believing there was no other choice in the matter, promptly complied by providing the requested Affidavits.

As a direct and proximate result, the Seller filed a complaint with the Real Estate Council maintaining that the information contained in the Affidavits was ‘confidential’ and that the firm had breached a duty of confidentiality owing to the Seller. As it turned out, the Affidavits were never used in the court proceedings.

The real estate brokerage, on the other hand, took the position that any duty of confidentiality arising from the agency relationship ended with the expiration of the Listing Agreement. The firm argued, moreover, that even if there was a duty of continuing confidentiality such duty would not preclude or otherwise limit the evidence that the real estate brokerage would be compelled to give under a subpoena or in a process under the Rules Of Court. And, finally, the realty company pointed out that there is no such thing as a realtor-client privilege, and that in the instant circumstances the Seller could not have prevented the firm from giving evidence in the lawsuit.

The Real Estate Council did not accept the line of defence and maintained that there exists a continuing duty of confidentiality, which extends after the expiration of the Listing Agreement. Council ruled that by providing the Affidavits both the brokerage and the two licensee had breached this duty.

The attorney-client privilege is a legal concept that protects communications between a client and the attorney and keeps those communications confidential. There are limitations to the attorney-client privilege, like for instance the fact that the privilege protects the confidential communication but not the underlying information. For instance, if a client has previously disclosed confidential information to a third party who is not an attorney, and then gives the same information to an attorney, the attorney-client privilege will still protect the communication to the attorney, but will not protect the information provided to the third party.

Because of this, an analogy can be drawn in the case of a realtor-client privilege during the existence of a Listing Agreement, whereby confidential information is disclosed to a third party such as a Real Estate Board for publication under the terms of a Multiple Listings Service agreement, but not before such information is disclosed to the real estate brokerage. In this instance the privilege theoretically would protect the confidential communication as well as the underlying information.

And as to whether or not the duty of confidentiality extends past the termination of a Listing Agreement is still a matter of open debate, again in the case of an attorney-client privilege there is ample legal authority to support the position that such privilege does in fact extend indefinitely, so that arguably an analogy can be inferred as well respecting the duration of the duty of confidentiality that the Agent owes the Seller, to the extent that such duty extends indefinitely.

This, in a synopsis, seems to be the position taken by the Real Estate Council of British Columbia in this matter.

Clearly, whether the duty of confidentiality that stems out of a Listing Agreement survives the termination of the contract is problematic to the Real Estate profession in terms of practical applications. If, for instance, a listing with Brokerage A expires and the Seller re-lists with Brokerage B, if there is a continuing duty of confidentiality on the part of Brokerage A, in the absence of express consent on the part of the Seller a Realtor of Brokerage A could not act as a Buyer’s Agent for the purchase of the Seller’s property, if this was re-listed by Brokerage B. All of which, therefore, would fly right in the face of all the rules of professional cooperation between real estate firms and their representatives. In fact, this process could potentially destabilize the entire foundation of the Multiple Listings Service system.

In the absence of specific guidelines, until this entire matter is clarified perhaps the best course of action for real estate firms and licensees when requested by a lawyer to provide information that is confidential, is to respond that the brokerage will seek to obtain the necessary consent from the client and, if that consent is not forthcoming, that the lawyer will have to take the necessary legal steps to compel the disclosure of such information.